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What is Low Latency, and how it is implemented in HLS and DASH?

Low latency refers to the minimized delay or time lag between the transmission of media content and its playback, resulting in near-real-time communication or streaming experiences. It is particularly important in applications that require interactive communication, such as video conferencing, live streaming, online gaming, and real-time collaboration.

Here's how low latency is addressed in specific streaming technologies:

1. LL-DASH (Low Latency-Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP): LL-DASH is an extension of the MPEG-DASH streaming protocol designed to reduce latency in adaptive bitrate streaming. It incorporates techniques like smaller segment sizes, chunked transfer encoding, and late binding of media segments to minimize the delay between content availability and playback. LL-DASH aims to achieve low latency streaming while maintaining the benefits of adaptive bitrate streaming.

2. LL-HLS (Low Latency HTTP Live Streaming): LL-HLS is an extension of the HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) protocol, which is widely used for streaming video content on iOS devices and web browsers. LL-HLS introduces features like chunked transfer encoding, byte-range requests, and HTTP/2 server push to reduce latency. It enables near-real-time streaming experiences by reducing the delay between content generation and delivery to viewers.

3. WebRTC (Web Real-Time Communication): WebRTC is a collection of open-source protocols and APIs that enable real-time communication, including audio and video streaming, directly between web browsers or applications. WebRTC is known for its low-latency capabilities, as it establishes direct peer-to-peer connections between browsers, enabling real-time and interactive streaming experiences. WebRTC is commonly used in applications like video conferencing, live streaming, and real-time collaboration.

All three technologies, LL-DASH, LL-HLS, and WebRTC, are designed to minimize latency in streaming scenarios. They employ various techniques and optimizations to reduce the delay between content transmission and playback, enabling more immediate and interactive experiences for users. By reducing latency, these technologies enhance communication, collaboration, and streaming applications where real-time interaction and responsiveness are critical.

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